Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Modernism & Post Modernism


The original title of this work was Emerging Towards Departure. I changed it to Emerging Towards Apostasy. The word “apostasy” is a deadly serious word. It comes from the Greek word apostasia, meaning REVOLT. There is a spiritual REVOLT within the churches of Christ. Webster’s 9th New Collegiate Dictionary defines “apostasy” as a “renunciation of a religious faith.” I prayerfully and reluctantly changed the title. I reached that decision to change the title in late May, 2008 upon learning that bro. Max Lucado signed the so-called "Evangelical Manifesto" at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. His signature declares to the entire world that he has publicly renounced God’s Plan of Salvation in favor of the folly of man. He is in open revolt…and not a word of this was reported in the leading brotherhood newspapers. I was stunned and dismayed but bro. Lucado had “crossed the Rubicon and burned the bridge.” May 7, 2008 was a seminal and watershed date in the history of the church of Christ and we, as God’s people, didn’t even take notice.

The word “apostasy” has eternal implications regardless as to whether it is rightly or wrongly applied. Correctly applied, “apostasy” describes those who have abandoned the faith “once for all delivered to the saints” and embraced error, the kind of error that may drag souls into hell. If wrongly applied accusing others of “apostasy” makes one a focus of heavenly anger for wrong application makes one a judge of the motives of other men, a place God reserves for Himself exclusively. Erroneous application also makes one a merchant of “discord among brethren,” a thing that God hates.

Sadly, there are now those in the church of Christ embracing and teaching “another gospel.” It is a “gospel” built upon a foundation of neo-Gnostic interpretive methods, motivated by denominational Evangelical influences and propelled by pragmatic and self centered Post-Modern philosophy.

I often go to a web site known as answers.com.(1) It is a great resource for quick reference material on most any subject. One night in the fall of 2006 I typed in "Restoration Movement" just to see what I would find. There was an extensive article on the churches of Christ. In the midst of the article there was a paragraph that puzzled me. The entry read: "Emergent Churches of Christ." Frankly, I had never heard of the term. I then spent the next two hours reading about "Emergent Churches of Christ." I received quite an education that night. The purpose of this book is to convey to you, as objectively as I can, what I have learned since. I have documented this work heavily so that the reader can independently verify the validity of these assertions and conclusions in a Berean spirit. I will attempt to do so with gentleness and respect for the souls involved without attempting to judge motives. What you read here are not judgments of motive, but a forthright assessment of a movement among us. It's not important as to who is right, it is what is right that matters. “What is right” is that which is consistent with the revealed, clear and linear Word of God. With that in mind, my mission is threefold.

MISSION STATEMENT

First I intend to identify and bring to light an apostasy from the church of Christ that is philosophically flawed by Post-Modernism, spiritually flawed by Evangelicalism and theologically flawed by Patristic interpretive models.

Secondly, by bringing these issues to light, I prayerfully hope to warn the faithful of the dangers of the present hour and the dangers of the very near future.

Thirdly, by God’s grace and mercy, I hope these words will encourage those who are contemplating a departure, and those already departed from us, to reconsider their decision and to turn back to the “narrow way that leads to life.”

Finally, my primary approach, instead of examining the false deductions of these errors, is to examine the dubious road map to these errors. In other words, this work is an examination of the FOUNDATION of error instead of an examination of the CONCLUSIONS of those who are in error. There are numerous extant works examining the false conclusions of the Emergents, all done by those far more competent than I. Having said that, when we dialogue with the Emergents among us we will fail miserably unless, and until, we are thoroughly familiar with HOW they arrived at their erroneous conclusions. To that singular goal I give this work to you in the Name of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, the Creator and Sustainer of all things.

Thesis:

This work will show that those "Emerging Towards Apostasy," are doing so by adopting Post-Modern philosophy, by becoming unequally yoked with denominational Evangelicalism and, most importantly, by adopting a Patristic and neo-Gnostic interpretive method based upon the teachings of Origen and Thomas Aquinas (whose image appears at the heading of this study).

For some time I have noticed more and more congregations among us acting and speaking in ways that I simply just can’t understand. It is as if some people are communicating in a completely different language! I must admit, I had no clue as to what is taking place all over the country. I now realize what is "going on" and here it is:

Many congregations have ceased to RESIST the culture and have begun to EMBRACE the culture, and some have even BECOME the culture.

What is "going on" is like something I used to experience years ago while listening to WGH, a 1960's Hampton, Virginia, "rock and roll" radio station, the "double play." The "double play" was simply playing over a song just heard. The song of today's culture is what we call Post Modernism. Post Modernism is, at its core, an "double play" of Judges 21:25 (2) and Romans chapter 1 where everyone "does his own thing." The trinity that is worshipped by Post Modernists is "me, myself & I" instead of the Father, the Son & the Holy Spirit. As Solomon said; "...there is no new thing under the sun." (Ecclesiastes 1:9c) What I soon was to discover is what the late denominationalist scholar, Francis Schaeffer, discovered in the sixties, and that is, many among us are speaking a different language altogether. “It is na├»ve to discuss the theological questions as theological questions until one has considered what truth means to the one making the theological statements”.(3) Sadly, some among us have a different definition of truth than they used to.

Before we can get a handle on how Post-Modernism has affected the Lord's church we must define the term itself. The scriptures just referenced, of course, render the best definition of all. Post-Modern man does just as he pleases, "king or no king." In fact the Post-Modernist crowns HIMSELF king.

In the broadest of terms, Post Modernism is an “equal and opposite reaction” to Modernism. Until the 18th century, westerners, even when at war with one another over religion, considered the Scriptures the only source of truth, period. Before the mid eighteenth century, all westerners shared this same basic world view. Soon afterwards, however, the so-called “Age of Reason” was ushered in. This is what we refer to today as Modernism. Its premise was that man’s ultimate truth is in his own ability to reason. It also stated that though the Scripture may hold “truth,” it does not hold ALL truth. Thirdly, it stated that “truth” found in Scripture can also be located apart from Scripture as well. Modernism has left in its wake history’s greatest tragedies. When played out in real life, Modernism brought us the bloodletting that was the French Revolution, Napoleon and what was truly the “first world war.” For nearly 20 years Europe was engulfed in total warfare pitting agnostic France against the rest of Europe’s theocratic monarchies. In the end, France was defeated but the Modernism that fostered the evil that was Napoleonic France, lived on. It was Modernistic thinking that led Darwin to publish the lies that will damn millions. It was Modernistic thinking that asserted that man has more “good” in him than evil. The Modernists liked to often mention the “divine spark,” the idea that essentially “good” man can continually improve himself over time. In fact, the Modernists believed that man would someday reach perfection through sheer self effort. (Sounds a lot like Dr. Phil, doesn’t it?)

Francis Schaeffer wrote prolifically in the 1960's and 1970's about the cultural shift between what we now call Modernism and Post-Modernism. He saw this shift in watershed terms;
…this change in the concept of the way we come to knowledge and truth is the MOST crucial problem, as I understand it, facing Christianity today. If you had lived in Europe prior to about 1890, or in the United States before 1935, you would not have had to spend much time, in practice, in thinking about your presuppositions…Before these dates everyone would have been working on much the same presuppositions, which in practice seemed to accord with the Christians own presuppositions…What were these presuppositions? The basic one was that there really are such things as absolutes. They accepted the possibility of an absolute in the area of Being (or knowledge), and in the area of morals. Therefore, because they accepted the possibility of absolutes, though men might disagree as to what these were, nevertheless they could reason together in the basis of antithesis. So if anything was true, the opposite was false. In morality, if one thing was right, its opposite was wrong…historic Christianity stands on a basis of antithesis. Without it historic Christianity is meaningless.(4)

Schaeffer illustrates this shift by something he calls the "line of despair." Prior to about 1890 in Europe and prior to about 1935 in the United States, people thought in terms of having convictions. After about 1890 in Europe and after about 1935 in the United States, people began thinking in terms of having opinions. Conviction is static whereas opinion is fluid, changing and vacillating. Ever changing opinions are the hallmark of Post-Modern thought and practice. The bridge between Modernism and Post-Modernism was built slowly over a number of decades and was characterized by the destruction of conviction. This shift in thought as to how people arrive at knowledge and truth is sweeping and profound. Nothing remains the same as it was before. Before about 1935 in the United States people accepted the fact that there was absolute truth and that this absolute truth was revealed in the Scriptures, was understandable by the average person and was held collectively by society, even by unbelievers. Beginning about 1935 in the United States people began rejecting the fact that truth was absolute. Instead the false notion began to proliferate that truth did not emanate from Scripture, that truth was not understandable by the average person and that truth, if it exists at all, is held individually. As with any falsehood, permeation of the majority mindset is progressively downward. The shift is now complete as Post Modernism has not only reached the denominational world, it has reached the church of Christ. Schaeffer illustrates this shift as a downward stair step:

Philosophy
Art
Music
General Culture
Theology (5)

The shift spread in several ways: geographically starting in Germany, socially from the intellectuals to the middle class and disciplinarily from the philosophers to the theologians. Schaeffer's assessment is sadly correct. Though some residual Christian influence remains, American culture is essentially post-Christian. The Emergent church is a post-Christian church, it does not flow from the Scriptures. The post-Christian Emergent church flows from man's ever-changing and self-centered intellect.(6)

The illusions of Modernism were shattered by the senseless violence of the First World War (1914-1918). The wholesale slaughter of millions illustrated with chilling clarity that the assumptions of modernism were lies from the pit of hell. Mankind is not essentially "good" and he cannot perfect himself. A key component of Modernism, if not its defining one, is “Social Darwinism,” a flawed theory that teaches that man is ever evolving upwardly through the “survival of the fittest.” Denominational scholar Dave Breese observes:
Social Darwinism was fast (prior to WWI – RM) persuading society of a similar [to biological Darwinism – RM] conviction. It claimed that no problem was unsolvable, no difficulty unresolvable. Given time enough, all would be well. Humanity had within it a potential that would not be denied. Let the naysayers and the pessimists be left behind, for nature itself had dictated progress and fulfillment, writing it large upon the bright scrolls of the future.(7)

Breese goes on to conclude:
…(it) turned the early promise of the twentieth century into the greatest series of disasters the world had ever known. It (Modernism / Social Darwinism as defined by John Dewey) brought upon the world the greatest intellectual confusion, moral myopia, and carnage that has been seen in the history of man.(8)

The physical and monetary drain on the British Empire, for example, took her from being the most powerful nation on earth in 1914 to near 3rd world status by 1945 making clear this tragic truth. Modernism stole the soul of Britain, leaving her only the dust and rubbish of Post-Modernism. Prior to World War I, the vast majority of evangelistic energy, manpower and money came from her shores. Somewhere between “Flanders’s Field’s” and “Dunkirk,” England gave up her belief in God. Today, I am told, that there are more practicing Muslims in England than practicing Anglicans. Will people 50 years hence write that somewhere between “Pearl Harbor” and “Baghdad,” that America gave up her belief in God? God help us! We must always keep close to our hearts Christ’s rhetorical question; “When the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on the earth?” (Luke 18:8 (RSV) It is unfortunate that what drives society eventually drives mans faith. The tail does indeed wag the dog.

Theologically speaking, Modernism wrecked similar havoc. “Theological Modernism” stated that truth is found through human reason, experience and observation, BUT not by revelation or inspiration. However “lip service” is rendered to the Scriptures by the Modernists as having a “useful” role in society. Modernism is a world view that says that truth is discoverable but is ever changing and generational in its definition. Today’s truth, though “true” today, will be useless tomorrow. When applied to theology the modernist would “accommodate” the scriptures to the present generation but would not bind those “truths” on subsequent generations. According to Prof. H. J. Ry, modernism says “…(that) faith (is) the experience of man’s beliefs about God and not an intellectual assent to God’s revealed Word” and that “…(the Bible) is not inspired by God and is not inerrant…Creedal formulas were true only for the age to that composed them.(9) Phil Johnson, a noted denominational scholar, defines modernism thusly, “…at (Modernisms) very core and inception was an overt attempt to subvert and defeat the truth of Scripture with humanistic rationalism.”(10)

Humanism has been around a long time, in fact, since the Garden of Eden when Satan promised Adam and Eve that they “would be as gods.” The ancient Greek philosopher, Protagarus, came up with a philosophy now called “HOMOMENSURA,” meaning; “man is the measure.” In our time, as cited previously, the late Frances Schaefer said of this philosophy; “Humanism is a philosophy that has both its feet firmly planted in mid air.” (Much like “Wiley Coyote” ® in the old “Road Runner” ® cartoons, I might add!)(11)

Post Modernism, as a response to modernism, asserts that truth is elusive and not discoverable. Reason is no longer valid. Post Modernists continually “seek” truth but never find it either individually or collectively.

Truth seeking to a Post Modernist is much like chasing the proverbial “greased pig” around the barnyard. The chase is fun but there is very little chance of catching the critter, let alone holding on to him!

Here is where we have come historically, until about 1700 western man believed truth was obtained by Divine Revelation. From ca. 1700 until 1890-1935 western man believed that truth was obtained primarily by human reason. Today western man believes that truth is simply unobtainable, it's "each man for himself." Mankind has come full circle like the 1964 Glen Ford movie, "Advance to the Rear." ©
Based upon the quotations in this book, some of the most influential men in the church of Christ today are convicted of little or nothing, "as their foolish hearts have been darkened" by Post-Modernistic thinking and influences.
Post Modernism in its “purest form” is a world view where there is not a Creator God (or if He does exist, then He is an inactive, “retired,” or a “Deist” God) where man is not subservient or responsible to any “god” whatsoever. The Post Modernist says, in effect, that since ultimate truth, even for this generation, is not obtainable, therefore, each person has the right to establish truth in his or her own mind. In other words, truth is ever changing, truth is in constant motion and truth is always individually defined. In the Romans 1 model, Post Modernist man becomes his own god and worships his own image. Since Post-Modernists themselves consider individual emotion as the ultimate definer of truth, they could NEVER agree on a single technical (objective) definition as just what Post-Modernism is! Be that as it may, here is how the online encyclopedia Wikipedia defines Post Modernism:
The term defies easy definition, but generally comprises the following core ideals:
A continual skepticism towards the ideas & ideals of the modern era, especially the ideas of progress, objectivity, reason, certainty & personal identity, and grand narrative in general.
The belief that all communication is shaped by cultural bias, myth, metaphor [allegory – RM] & political content.
The assertion that meaning and experience can only be created by the individual, and cannot be made objective by an author or narrator. [Such as God – RM]
(Characterized by) parody, satire, self-reference and wit.
Acceptance of a mass media dominated society in which there is no originality, but only copies of what has been done before.
Globalization, a culturally pluralistic and profoundly inter connected global society lacking any single dominant center of political power, communication, or intellectual production. Instead, the world is moving towards decentralization in all types of global processes.(12)

Phil Johnson further observes;
Post Modernism is not a significant departure from modernism; it is just a similar attempt to subvert and defeat the truth of Scripture by glorifying irrationality [Johnson’s emphasis] and portraying all truth as hopelessly paradoxical, ambiguous, unclear, uncertain, unimportant or otherwise unworthy… Post Modernism abandons the hope of finding any absolute or inconvertible truth, and instead, the Post Modernist looks for amusement by playing with words and language, and by questioning every assumption and challenging every truth claim. …in general (Post Modernism) refers to a tendency to discount values like dogmatism, authority, absolutism, assurance, certainty, and large, commanding, exclusive worldviews--which postmodernists like to label metanarratives. [“…stories that people have used to define their place in the world.”](13) Postmodern values would include things like diversity, inclusiveness, relativism, subjectivity, tolerance, ambiguity, pragmatism, and above all, a view of "humility" that is characterized by lots of qualms and reservations and uncertainties and disclaimers about whether anything we hold in our belief system is really true or not. Those are the very same values that are usually held in high esteem in the emerging church movement.(14)
In practical terms for this discussion, Post-Modern thought is observed by this writer as being characterized by the following, though incomplete, random list I have compiled over the recent past:

Truth is based on one's own subjective feelings.
Truth has no fixed values.
God, "if" He exists, is seen as subservient to man.
There are many paths to this "god."
All paths to this "god" are equally valid.
The symbolic triumphs over the rational.
The senses are to be trusted above intellect.
Truth is perceived, not revealed.
Convictions are scoffed at.
Opinions are honored since they can be changed as easy as a pair of socks. The Post Modernist is expected to change his or her opinions often as proof of having an open mind.
Tolerance is a virtue, in fact the supreme virtue to the Post Modernist, but ONLY as it applies to other Post Modernists. Total intolerance is manifested towards anyone not in the Post Modern mind set.
Success, as each individual defines it, is universally expected, nearly guaranteed, and can be pragmatically planned in advance. This is known as “outcome based” thinking.
Every inconvenience is elevated to crisis status. It was widely reported in the media on August 6, 2008 that a man called 911 TWICE because his sandwich was not made to his satisfaction at a local sandwich shop! The police arrested him for abusing the 911 service, shattering the man’s Post-Modern presuppositions!
Truth is found primarily by one’s own personal experience.
Truth is not static, it "evolves." (i.e. the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States are "living, breathing documents" and the intent of the Founders no longer matters, we can assign our own multiple meanings to these documents as it suits us.)
All stationary beliefs are to be attacked.
Feelings and emotions trump logic and reason.
Self Centeredness is king..."What's in it for me?"
All reality is perceived and individuals can “create" their own reality. (i.e. Making up one’s own driving rules, "The Real World" on MTV & video games where “dead” players come back to life with the reset button are but three examples)
All opinions are equally valid, we all "agree to disagree."
Simply making a statement about something somehow "makes it so."
Truth is "discovered" internally.
What appears to be external evidence no longer matters. (Have you ever heard the expression; "Oh, well....!" or “Whatever…!” after undisputable facts have been laid down? FACTS are archaic and useless to the Post-Modernist. Sound hermeneutic principles are not only ignored, they are scoffed at when it comes to Christianity.) The old joke is no longer funny, “Don’t confuse me with facts, my mind is made up!”
Mass Media is to be continually in use and not questioned in any way. (The evangelist of Post Modernism is the Television and he preaches his sermons in our homes on nearly a continual 24/7 basis!)
The pursuit of pleasure and the "good life" are paramount.
All pleasure is good and all pain is evil.(15)

Post-Modernism is not new, we have seen it before. What we now call Post-Modernism we once termed “existentialism.” Existentialism is a philosophy (stretching the word!) that is literally built on insanity! It takes the constant ups and downs along with the continual internal civil war of manic-depression and weaves it into a world view! Existential “thought” turns the bizarre into the admirable, the twisted into normal, the irrational into rational and finally the unreal into a “new reality.” Breese observes:
The result of Kierkegaard’s emergence in the middle of the twentieth century can be described as theological and philosophical diffusion [contradiction is “truth” – RM]. Thinking moved from the rational to the irrational; reason gave way to feeling. Final truth slipped away, and the thinking of the world became a set of self-contradictions. Theological and philosophical diffusion – that is existentialism.(16)

The so-called father of existentialism is one Soren Kierkegaard. Kierkegaard, was during his very short and disturbed life, called the “melancholy Dane.” He lived in Copenhagen from 1813 until 1855. Instead of seeking treatment for his mental condition he celebrated it and, with his vast writing ability, attempted to “sell” his delusions as a “philosophy.” His work had little effect outside of Denmark during his lifetime and he was not translated into English until a number of years after his death. His “philosophy” of despair did not really get a toe hold in the wider world until the close of WWI when the promise of Social Darwinism and Modernism came crashing down as a lie. Since main-line Protestant denominationalism in Europe had been co-opted by Modernism, the “church” had no answers and many fell sway first to the despair of Kierkegaard and then to the damnable lies of Marx, Engles, Lenin, Stalin, Hitler and Mussolini. Nature abhors a vacuum. When “Christendom” was removed from the soul of Europe, the vacuum that remained was instantly filled with the despair of existentialism…where it remains today. We are witnesses to the sobering reality that today Europe is in spiritual, philosophical and cultural trauma. Unless the church of Christ commits herself to the immediate re-evangelism of Europe we will soon view Europe totally expired on her deathbed, killed by the hand wringing “tolerance” of existentialism and the “noble ignorance” of Post-Modernism. Into this vacuum, instead of communism this time, will sweep radical Islam. Gordon Brown, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom has recently articulated a national goal of Great Britain becoming the world leader in shiria law compliant financing! Should America not turn from Post-Modernism, we too will suffer the same fate as Europe long before the end of the twenty first century. May God allow us all to have “ears to hear.”

Visually, there is a precise picture of Post-Modernistic thought currently playing in the form of a commercial on T.V. You likely have seen it. The commercial is for a high end career job search web site called ladders.com ® In the commercial we see a tennis match. All of a sudden, the people in the stands rush the court and all begin to play tennis, each according to their own individually defined rules. Chaos, of course, is the result. The tag line says; “When everyone plays, no one wins.” In a word, Post-Modernism is as Phil Johnson describes it, "zeitgeist, The Spirit of the Age.”(17)

In the recent past some among us have attempted to "accommodate" the Post Modernists by implementing pragmatic outreach concepts. One such experiment is the so-called "community church." Community churches are, for the purpose of this book, churches of Christ who have discarded the name of Christ. This kind of extra-biblical outcome based thinking has led to "unequally yoked cooperation" with denominations in various social improvement projects. Such “cooperation” has blurred the lines between the “new reality” and the revealed truth of scripture regarding the biblical congregational model. These experiments, however, rarely at the time actually embraced Post Modern thinking as being biblically acceptable for Christians themselves, but “the hand was too close to the fire and the hand was burnt.”

Unfortunately, as with any surrender of conviction, there is not very often a "rewind" button. Eventually, corners are turned and we reach the point of "no return." Attempts to convert Post-Modernists have rendered the opposite effect, an open embrace of Post- Modernism by people professing to be Christians. A noted denominationalist, Haddon Robinson, has this to say regarding this syndrome,
Of course in speaking to a secular world we dare not speak a secular word. William Willimon observed that some preachers seem to have bent over backwards to speak to a secular audience and have fallen in.(18)

As the now defunct Pogo ® cartoon states, “We have met the enemy and he is us!” This principle is illustrated in Patty Hearst, who was kidnapped by radicals a number of years ago. Over time, she began to identify with her kidnappers and finally joined them in their brazen crime spree.

Open embrace of Post-Modern thinking is now a real threat to the continued faithfulness of many among us. Many now identify themselves more with the Post-Modern “target audience” than with the truth of the gospel they had originally sought to proclaim.

In closing we must remember this: The Emergent church is Post-Modern and Existential. She has embraced darkness. The leaders of the Emergent church are disciples of the madman Kierkegaard. God help us! But before existential Post-Modern thinking impacted the Lord’s church it impacted the denominational world like a scud missile. (To Be Continued)

(1) From answers.com/ "Restoration Movement/Churches of Christ (non-instrumental) / "Post 1906 Schisms" / paragraph #7
(2) All Scripture quotations, unless otherwise noted, are from Webster's 1833 Webster Bible translation of the Bible, a public domain document
(3) Francis A. Schaeffer, The God Who Is There - Speaking Historic Christianity Into the Twentieth Century, (Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1968, 1975) p. 51
(4) Ibid. pp. 13-15
(5) Ibid. pg. 16
(6) Ibid. p. 16
(7) Dave Breese, Seven Men Who Rule the World from the Grave, (Chicago, IL., Moody Press, 1990), pg. 153
(8) Ibid., pg. 154
(9) H. J. Ry, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1968, XV, pg. 631
(10) From a lecture given at the 2006 “Shepard's Conference” at Grace Community Church entitled; “Absolutely Not!” – “Exposing the Post Modern Errors of the Emerging Church” by Phil Johnson. For a full text see emergentno.blogspot.com/2006/03/phil-johnson-critical-look-at-emerging.html. NOTE: Emergent Theology is so radical that EVEN evangelical denominationalists, such as Dr. Johnson, are very much alarmed. Noted evangelical denominationalist Dr. John MacArthur has recently released a book on the subject entitled: The Truth War – Fighting for Christianity in the Age of Deception. In this work I often cite denominational and evangelical sources to document my statements. I do so for this reason: If EVEN those steeped in denominational and evangelical error can see the dangers of Emergent Theology, HOW can we not?!
(11) From a radio broadcast made by noted Reformed denominational scholar Dr. R. C. Sproul broadcast in late September, 2006 on WHVN, Charlotte, NC.
(12) See: wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Modernism AUTHORS NOTE: Wikepedia is subject to constant updates and changes. This exact quote may no longer be part of this article at time of publication. RM
(13) The definition of “metanarrative” is from Karl Aspehund in his presentation entitled; “Extension of Self: Media, History, and the Perception of Style in the Post Modern Age.” See uri.edu/hss/tmd/02k/Aspelundsummary.htm noted as a source on answers.com/metanarratives
(14) Phil Johnson, op cit, See Note #4
(15) As noted, this is a rather “random” list I have gathered. I have long been intrigued with how our culture, especially the business and political side of our culture, is obsessed with pragmatic and outcome based thinking and practices. Please write or e-mail me with any additional descriptions you can think of…OR…challenge me to remove any inconsistent with Post Modernism. For a more complete study, you may want to read Moral Darwinism: How We Became Hedonists by noted Roman Catholic scholar Benjamin Wiker. It was published in 2002 by InterVarsity Press. Though technical and difficult to absorb the work exhaustively covers the subject of just how 21st century Post Modern American thinking works. It is interesting that though the entire work is about Post Modernism, the phrase does not even appear in the index!
(16) Dave Breese, op cit, pg. 215
(17) Phil Johnson. See note #4
(18) Haddon Robinson, Biblical Preaching: The Development and Delivery of Expository Messages (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic. 2001) pg. 31-22.

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